I have had experience with AuthorizeNet and PCI compliance both with CiviCRM installs and other sites with custom configurations. the process is the same, generally the merchant account provider will require scans through a service provider. You will most likely need to make adjustments to server settings, primarily port/firewall adjustments. Depending on your hosting provider the ease of this may vary. Shared hosting may cause some issues as they may not make the changes.
Keep in mind that PCI compliance goes beyond your website transactions. If you process any Credit Card information from your office network via the AuthorizeNet Portal or a swipe machine your office network will be scanned and some adjustments may need to be made there also.
The process involves filing out a questionnaire and scans. Also most providers require regular scans to maintain compliance. It's important to maintain compliance as most merchants account providers will charge higher fees if you are not compliant.