How it should look: We recently upgraded to 4.7.22. Now, if I click "Record Membership Payment", under "Edit Membership", the payment options do not show up. The same thing happens for members that already have a membership, and I click "Update Payment Status". I attached a picture of what the screen looks like after checking the checkbox. I looked in the logs, and do not see any errors. We are using Drupal 7.56
There is some complicated logic in CiviCRM related to memberships and payments, especially auto-renewing memberships, and it depends on the payment processor as well.
On one of my 4.7.22 installs for example, it doesn't offer me the opportunity to record a membership payment at all on the edit membership screen, even for non-auto-renewing ones.
My guess is that the upgrade has tightened some of the cases that it thinks shouldn't be used (e.g. an auto-renew membership shouldn't allow you to run an administrative payment via the membership edit screen).
If you can provide details about your payment processor, and also try editing memberships for both auto-renewing and non-auto-renewing, you might get some more useful clues.
On the other hand, the fact that it's giving you that checkbox, but not providing an opportunity to input details when you check it, should be considered a bug.