This is not a particularly good answer to your question, but since Erik asked :)
I've worked on a chatbot app that can be used to integrate between Facebook and CiviCRM. Chatbot interacts via the messenger platform and pulls in their first name, last name and picture (which is what the messenger app allows). You can then use it it to further populate fields via a chat interface, e.g. you could ask the question "What city do you live in?" and put the answer in the city address field. But that doesn't sound like what you want to do though.
The Drupal module you reference looks like a good start. If you were able to get the info you needed into Drupal that would be a good proof of concept and would probably be a worthwhile first step if you haven't done it already since there is point going down this road if Facebook is not willing to let you have the information that you require.
I suspect getting the info from their into CiviCRM will require some custom coding, unless there is an integration between Drupal user profiles and CiviCRM that I am not aware of.
Hopefully that is of some use - sorry I can't be of more help at the moment.