I would like to be able to search for a specific Case Type as well as a Case End Date within this case type. To give an example, say I have a record that contains both Case A (which ended January 2018) and Case B (which ended December 2018). Right now, the advanced search is returning this record if I search for "Case Type A" AND "Case End Date December 2018." However, I would like the search to NOT return this record, as the end date (December 2018) is not affiliated with Case Type A. Is there a way for me to conduct such a search? I'm using CiviCRM 5.13.4.
As @Demerit proposed a case report is a good way to go. If you need searches like this very often I would create a search with the data processor extension for that: Use Case for search, add the fields you'd like to see as columns and add filters for date / date range and case type. There are a lot more very useful features, too, e.g. you can add a manage case link to jump to the case view for each item directly from the results.