Recently had a user attach a .docx file that was 14 MB to a mailing. (Probably a single picture in the document was to blame.) As one would expect, the messages bounced rather than being delivered. However, the mailing reports just showed a bounce type of Syntax. As you can imagine, this is rather unhelpful. Digging around, I finally turned to the system's logging for maillog where I found the report of the attachment too large. Should I have found this information somewhere in CiviCRM itself? Perhaps in the mailing report that I overlooked?
There's an administrative setting that controls that limit here:
Administer -> System Settings -> Misc (Undelete, PDFs, Limits, Logging, Captcha, etc.)
The "syntax error" you are seeing is likely what the Civi mailer is getting back from the smtp server. I've seen that as a kind of catchall error message from mailers (e.g. it's what sparkpost will report when not configured). I don't think that Civi can do anything other than pass it on - i.e. the reporting error is from the system that's trying/failing to send out the mail.
Personally, I think there should be a message in the CiviMail system strongly discouraging attachments and encouraging attachments to be uploaded and linked to instead. That will increase deliverability.
The only really good use-case for attachments is if the document is private.
So the answer to your question is: "no".