Although you're putting together a survey, the CiviCRM tool you'll want to use is the Profile. Create a new profile with the custom fields along with any standard ones you want to include.
You'll then want to send an email with an automatically-personalized link to the profile--that way, everyone's responses will go on his or her own contact record without ...
What CMS are you using? If Drupal you could do a webform for your petition which would have all of the basic functionality of Civi petitions plus a lot more configurability. It would definitely let you change this setting.
While you could certainly use CiviCRM in the method you're describing, I'm not sure it's a great fit. CRMs are inherently about tracking constituent info; this data must be separate from your constituents. And while CiviCRM's webforms are adequate, it's certainly not such a great feature that I'd try to work against the software.
I think a third-party ...
I came across two form Plugins that people have written additional plugins so that they interact with CiviCRM.
The first one I tried was Caldera Forms. Here is the github link to the civi integration https://github.com/mecachisenros/caldera-forms-civicrm
I only recommend Caldeara Forms if you have a basic form. I finally gave up and asked for a refund.
For Grant Application on Drupal: I recommend webform_civicrm module for application workflows:
collect all contact info/fields you need (parents + child(ren) + emergency contacts)
store the relationships between these contacts
make it a nice looking multi page application
add payment field(s) in the process
It may help if you clarify the criteria around 'email blast to officials' but as I interpret it both 'send an email to an official' and 'sign up to a petition' can both be handled nicely using drupal webform and views.
Send an email to an official: will depend how automatically you want the target to be identified, but you could set up a View search, enter ...