This type of report is called a "pivot table". There's a report that will do what you want in the Extended Reports extension. If you don't have that installed, do the following (or ask your administrator):
Go to Administer menu » System Settings » Extensions.
Click the Add New tab.
Search for Extended Reports in the extension list and click the ...
It turns out, I can do it easily with CiviCRM Constituent Summary report. (Class used: CRM_Report_Form_Contact_Summary)
I just need to enable to show all necessary custom fields and it returns exactly the table needed.
This is now possible with the Extended Reports extension, which you can install from the in-app extension explorer. You'll need to rebuild your report in the corresponding Extended Report template. Click the Advanced Report Configuration link to reorder columns.
It's also possible with the ReportPlus extension, which I haven't used yet.
There is no such report that filters by logged in user and no integration with views as well AFAIK.
If you want detailed change log than you (system has logging enabled) then you can use Extended logging report. And manipulate report parameter like