How can I view responses to custom data questions? By looking at Contact summary I can see that new contacts are responding, but when I click on the link, nothing is there.
Each custom field is part of a group, that is itself attached to a "normal" civicrm entity (that can be a contact, an activity, a participant...), so the first thing you need to do is to find to what the custom group is attached.
the second thing it to be sure it's searchable. You can find both of them in the admin custom fields.
once you know where it is and that it's searchable, you can use the advance search, and you will have that field
As a side note: if your question provides a list of groups (all the sections or committees) it's probably going to be easier for you to ignore the custom field and directly show the list of groups