Is there a way to add additional fields in the contribution tab on a contacts record?
As Jon says you will need to write some code, it wouldn't be difficult to implement though.
What I tend to do is create a Civi extension or use an existing one as explained here.
Once done, you could use hook_civicrm_searchColumns to add an extra column header as explained here and then create a custom template, as documented here, of the file
templates/CRM/Contribute/Form/Selector.tpl to output the value needed.
The downside of the searchColumns hooks is that you wont be able to sort the data for that specific value.
Hope that gives more insights.
It's not clear from your question if you're looking for a means to add a column without coding. If so, the answer is "no". This is a good example of what's hoped to be possible with the CiviCRM 5 form builder, but that's still a ways off.
If you're able to code, or know/hire someone who does, the relevant file is